In the French village HVIIV. usury was extremely widespread. The peasant, borrowing in difficult money, pawned to the usurer the earth and then was forced to pay annually percent on the loan. Such payment of percent proceeding pretty often all life and even devolving to the peasant's children, created a regular additional land rent – the so-called superqualification. Quite often on a tsenziva collected on two-three superqualifications. Without changing a feudal way of production, the usurious capital strong stuck to the village, even more worsening position of the peasant who is already crushed by feudal requisitions.
From the economic point of view all sum of various duties and payments of the French peasants can be considered as the uniform mass of the additional product taken from the peasantry. This additional product shared on four unequal parts:
Despite the positive lines, narrow basis of manufactories which cornerstone the centuries-old city craft was, soon it appeared in a contradiction with rapid growth of requirements of foreign and domestic market that served one of the major incentive reasons for transition to large industrial production. The important role in this process was played by industrial revolution. Use of cars allowed capitalist production to make huge breakthrough forward in increase of labor productivity and to increase it even more, having started making cars for production of cars. T.o., prerequisites for saturation were created by goods of the huge market opened by capitalism.
Transition to capitalism, as well as to any other social order, mainly was defined by existence of mature economic prerequisites. Therefore it is natural that in those countries where feudalism exhausted the economic opportunities, transition to capitalism happened earlier, than in those countries where feudalism still kept positions. For emergence of capitalism process of initial accumulation of the capital at which small producers, mainly peasants, violently lost means of livelihood had crucial economic importance and became legally free while means of production concentrated in hands at the bourgeoisie. There was a free labor finding the application in the city at again organized factories. All this promoted rapid development of the market and transformation of simple commodity production in capitalist, i.e. in such production by which results of work of each person had to gain public recognition in the market by means of money.
The top layers of urban population were called in France as the bourgeoisie which part in the XVII century was already the bourgeoisie in modern sense of the word. The lower class of urban population was made by plebianism. It consisted from:
Rapid development of capitalism in the second half of the XX century led to emergence of the new phenomenon in economic life – internationalization of world capitalist economy. Amplified various, including economic, communications between various states that brought to life new forms of cooperation between them, such as, for example, economic integration.
France, as well as England, was in XVIIV one of the biggest and developed states of Western Europe. But process of ripening of new, capitalist way in a subsoil of feudal society had in France in comparison with England a number of essential features. These features in turn following from an economic originality of the French feudalism are explained why in France bourgeois revolution happened for 150 years later, than in England.
If the capitalist relations also got into agriculture of France, not in the form of bourgeois regeneration in estates, as in England, and in the form of development of the bourgeois relations in the environment of the peasantry: intercountry rent, use of wage labor of landless and land-poor neighbors, allocation of the rural bourgeoisie. However all this were no more than rudimentary elements of capitalism in agriculture. A large-scale country farm of enterprise type – very rare the phenomenon in the French village not only HVIIV., but also XVIIIV.