Essential oil from fennel fruits completely meets requirements of the consumer, but economic indicators of his production low at the expense of a high osypayemost of fruits when cleaning. When processing fresh plants of fennel production of raw materials is highly profitable, the exit of essential oil with 1 hectare raises by 3 - 4 times. However fennel plants oil owing to the high content of terpenic hydrocarbons has limited sale. From such oil it is difficult to receive high quality; the exit of a commodity anetol is lower, than from the oil received from fruits.
Cleaning and drying of raw materials before warehousing raise an exit and quality of essential oil, create conditions for the best storage, provide more effective use of warehouse capacity, increase productivity of processing equipment.
Crushing of raw materials opens efirnomaslichny channels by which all bodies of a plant are penetrated, increases bulk weight, uniform processing is promoted by their ferry, provides transportability of raw materials in continuous devices with consolidation in knots of loading and unloading. Therefore extent of crushing has impact on the speed of extraction and loss of essential oil in waste. Uniform norms for the amount of crushing of particles are not present.
Complex use of raw materials - one of the main objectives of any industry. It fully belongs and to processing of efirnomaslichny raw materials which part proteins, fat oil, carbohydrates, vitamins, vegetable wax are. To be limited to receiving from raw materials only of essential oil - it is too wasteful. Some types of raw materials overwork in a complex long ago. The coriander also concerns to them.
When processing a coriander in devices of continuous action the distillate containing 0,08% of essential oil can come for processing to traps-kogobatory. In this case secondary oil cannot be received separately.
Process of a decantation of essential oil is made at a temperature of distillate of 28 - 35 °C. Concentration of essential oil in distillation water of 0,05 - 0,06%. Kogobation proceeds easily with the maximum productivity of installation with a speed of distillation of 5% of productivity. The amount of secondary oil makes 4 - 6%.
How it is possible to process fennel in the form of the whole plants, and also mature fruits it is considered in drawing Apparently from the scheme of complex processing of fennel, both types of raw materials have to undergo distillation with water vapor (distillation) as for grain efirnomaslichny crops it is the most practical way of receiving essential oil.
For an otgonka of essential oil from grain crops use the crushed fruits. The operation purpose - destruction of structure of fruits, simplification of access of steam to places of concentration of essential oil (40 minutes instead of 10 - 12 hours for whole a fruit.
Steam sated with essential oil is condensed and cooled in condensers of vertical or horizontal type. Distillate is cooled up to the temperature of 45 - 50 °C. Decrease in temperature of distillate to 25 - 30 °C raises a water consumption, worsens office of oil. Regulation of the mode of cooling is of great importance when processing other grain efirnomaslichny plants.
This scheme of cleaning is applied when initial material was not littered with a dodder, but for crops it is necessary to draw the maximum quantity of fruits of the main culture. Such need arises, for example, at reproduction of new, especially scarce grades or at a shortcoming of economy of seed material.